Depression is a mood disorder which results in a state of decay with psychological and biological claudication manifested through psychic symptoms and may appear disinterested, sadness, demoralization, decreased self-esteem and somatic that could appear in the form of loss of appetite, weight decrease, fatigue, sleep disturbances with periods of insomnia and sleepiness.
At the time, making a correct diagnosis has been ruled transient episodes of sadness or frustration which are considered as a person’s natural reaction to negative events as situations of grieving the loss of a loved one or other kind of loss such as divorce or separation; but if it lasts more than six months or is so important that it is disabling, then clinically, it is known as a major depression.
Depression is a very common problem affecting an estimated 350 million people worldwide, being, according to WHO or the World Health Organization, the leading cause of disability worldwide.
Another common problem in these patients is estimated that half of them drop out of treatment before the recommended six months by experts resulting in greater numbers of relapse and increase chances that the condition becomes chronic.
Different types of depression are classified according to the symptoms that the patient is experiencing.
- Duration of symptoms is not less than two weeks.
- Not attributable to psychoactive substance or organic mental disorders.
- Depressed mood is usual in the patient and is constant throughout the day. It varies with the environmental conditions of the subject and could persist for at least 2 weeks.
- Loss or lack of interest in previously pleasurable activities.
- Increased capacity of fatigue, or loss of usual vitality.
- Loss of self-esteem and self-confidence. Unjustified inferiority extended in time.
- Constant self-reproach and guilt that is disproportionately excessive and inappropriate.
- Thoughts of death or suicide are recurringincluding attempts.
- Decreased concentration and thought usually accompanied by procrastination.
- Slow onset of motor functions or agitation.
- Sleep disturbances.
- Changes in body weight by uncontrolled eating marked increase or decrease in appetite.
- Presence of somatic syndrome consisting of hallucinations, delusions, psychomotor retardation or severe stupor consistent or not with the mood of the patient.
According to these criteria can be classified depressive box:
Based on these criteria, it will be easier to diagnose a patient based on symptoms shown in relation to group kinds.
- Mild depressive episode
It has two or three symptoms of group B. These patients usually are able to continue with their daily activities normally.
- Moderate depressive episode
The patient has at least two symptoms of group B and a number of the group C, to form six symptoms. These patients manifest difficulties for the development of common activities.
- Severe depressive episode
All of the symptoms of group B, several of the group bonded to C to form eight symptoms. These patients have an emotional situation strongly linked to anxiety, especially with loss of self-esteem and intense feelings of guilt and worthlessness.
These episodes become relevant when suicide is attempted.The mix of different symptoms associated with somatic is very dangerous and life threatening to the patient and should be monitored constantly and even when thepatient is hospitalized. At this stage,associated symptoms Group Dmay appear.